Causes and effects of the Great Depression

The Great Depression is a period in history that no one wants to revisit, but it is a time that teaches us great lessons, and we can learn a great deal from that event.

What was the cause of the Great Depression, or were there several? When did the depression start, and what happened in people’s lives? By profoundly understanding these problematic years in history, we can prevent a repeat of the new Great Depression in our time.

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What is the Great Depression?

The Great Depression was a worldwide economic depression that began in the United States in the 20th century. The day the Great Depression started is also known as Black Thursday, when panicked investors sold a record 13 million shares.

What year was the Great Depression?

The Great Depression began in October 1929. This was when the stock market crashed. Several factors caused it, including over-speculation in the stock market, decreased consumer spending, and increased business debt.

How long did the Great Depression last? It lasted almost 10 years.

What happened during the Great Depression?

The Great Depression was a time of great economic hardship for many people in the United States. The unemployment rate during the Great Depression reached as high as 25%. That calamity also caused many businesses to fail, which led to even more people losing their hands from their jobs.

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The immense economic downturn had many detrimental effects on the American economy. One of the most significant effects was the decrease in production. This decrease in production led to a decline in living standards for many Americans, leaving a direct imprint on the employment rate. 

This stagnating period also had many effects on American society. Against the backdrop of unemployment, crime increased, and people lost their homes due to the inability to pay their mortgages.

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What was life like during the Great Depression?

Life during the Great Depression was characterized by significant economic hardship. Poverty was widespread, people lost their savings, and it became highly tricky to support oneself. Families struggled to make ends meet, and most individuals lost their jobs and could not afford to pay their bills.

The Great Depression affected nearly every aspect of life, from how people lived and worked to how they thought about themselves and the world around them. These years were the most difficult for many families.

What caused the Great Depression? 

The most prominent cause was the stock market crash of 1929. This event signaled the beginning of the Great Depression and set off a chain reaction that led to bank failures, loss of jobs, and plummeting prices. 

So, why did the Great Depression happen? There were other causes.

The gold standard 

Before the Great Depression, most countries used the gold standard. It meant each currency was backed by a certain amount of gold and could be exchanged for gold at a fixed rate.

However, this system puts pressure on countries to maintain a low level of inflation (since higher prices would lead to people exchanging their currency for gold). It meant that governments were less able to respond to economic shocks and instead had to adopt austerity measures (spending cuts), which worsened the situation.

The Smoot-Hawley tariff 

In 1930, the US Congress passed the Smoot-Hawley tariff, which raised tariffs on imported goods. It led to a decline in world trade as other countries retaliated on this step taken by the US.

Lack of consumer confidence

Also, one of the causes of the Great Depression was the decline in purchasing power. Consumers have become more conservative in their spending. It was due to high unemployment, falling wages, and fear of deflation (falling prices).

Banking problems

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The failure of many banks exacerbated the Great Depression. It was partially due to the stock market crash but also because of the unregulated nature of the banking system.

Many banks made risky loans and invested heavily in the stock market, resulting in significant losses when it collapsed. It led to a loss of confidence in the banking system, causing people to withdraw their money from the banks (a run on the banks).

Austerity measures

Many countries were on the gold standard, adopting austerity measures (spending cuts) to balance their books. It led to a decline in aggregate demand and made the Great Depression worse.

The Federal Reserve

The Great Depression had also been blamed on the actions of the US Federal Reserve. In the years leading up to the Great Depression, the Fed kept interest rates low (to encourage lending and investment), leading to a stock market bubble.

When the stock market crashed, the Fed could have reacted by cutting interest rates and increasing the money supply (to prevent a deflationary spiral). However, they raised interest rates and decreased the money supply, which worsened the situation.

What was the cause of the end of the Great Depression?

There are a few different factors that are often cited as to what ended the Great Depression: 

  1. The United States entered World War II in 1941. This increased government spending and decreased unemployment as people were recruited to work in the war effort.
  2. The development of new technologies and industries also played a role in ending the Great Depression. The rise of the automobile industry, for example, created new jobs and helped to boost the economy.
  3. The implementation of New Deal policies by President Franklin Roosevelt also helped to bring an end to the Great Depression. These policies included Social Security, which provided a safety net for Americans during difficult times.
  4. The great drought of the 1930s finally ended in 1940. It helped farmers and other agricultural workers struggling during the depression.
  5. The great stock market crash of 1929 stopped happening. It allowed people to start reinvesting and helped to improve the economy.

While no single factor can be credited with ending the Great Depression, combining these factors helped bring a period of economic growth and prosperity again.

Reasons why the Great Depression could not happen again

Today, several safeguards would make it very difficult for a similar economic decline to occur. For one, the Federal Reserve has established policies designed to prevent a repeat of the conditions that led to the Great Depression. In addition, the banking system is much better regulated than it was in the early 20th century.

Many social safety nets did not exist during the Great Depression, which would help to cushion the blow of an economic downturn. These programs, such as unemployment insurance and food stamps, would provide essential support for those who lost their jobs or saw their incomes decline.

Finally, it is worth noting that the global economy is much more interconnected than it was during the Great Depression. This interdependence makes it less likely that any country could experience the same economic decline as the United States did in the 1930s.

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While it is impossible to say that another Great Depression could never happen, it seems unlikely that the conditions that led to the original would be replicated in the current day. It is not to say that there could never be another disaster, but instead that it is unlikely to reach the same depths as the Great Depression.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Let’s find out what else people are interested in about the Great Depression.

When did the Great Depression end?

The Great Depression was the most profound and prolonged economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world. It lasted more than a decade, from 1929 to 1941. The Great Depression ended in the early 1940s. 

How did the Great Depression affect the population?

we know it was a time of great hardship, and many people lost their lives due to the lack of food, resources, and support. The Great Depression people struggled to cope with their immense stress and pressure.


The Great Depression was, in fact, one of the darkest events that ever occurred in industrial history. The least we can do is not repeat the same mistakes that triggered the depression and work towards improving society as a whole to make the world a better place for everyone.

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