All about Adam Smith, who is called the father of economics

Who was the father of modern economics? Its founder is Adam Smith, an 18th-century Scottish philosopher. However, despite the fact that he lived so long ago, he is not just a person who is known as the father of economics, but a scientist whose writings are used to this day. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, his most well-known work, is still held in high respect as the foundational text for the study of the connections between society, politics, trade, and prosperity. In this article, we will closely discuss the life and writings of this famous philosopher, the father of capitalism, and public finance, and also discuss the definition of economics by Adam Smith.

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Adam Smith’s economic theory

The core tenet of Adam Smith’s economics is the concept that markets typically function most effectively when the government keeps out of the way. Smith argued that the optimal use of the country’s resources would be discovered by sensible people on their own. According to Adam Smith, government regulation could be harmful to economic development.

Since many people believed that a nation’s worth was based on how much gold it had, imports required both bringing goods into a country and exporting gold as well. Because these regulations prevented foreign competition for their products, domestic businesses tended to support them. Later, mercantilism was the name given to these merchant protection measures.

Early life

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Adam Smith was born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland, on November 17, 1723. He received a classical education at the University of Glasgow and then studied law. After some time as an advocate, Smith turned to study economics, receiving his doctorate from Edinburgh in 1759. He soon tired of practicing law and decided to become an economist instead. In 1759, while still practicing law, Adam Smith published his first book, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, which, though highly praised at the time, did not receive much attention outside academic circles until later editions were published.

In 1776, Smith published The Wealth of Nations, in which he argued that economic prosperity was the result of trade and specialization. He also developed the theory of market demand and said that prices reflect all available information about goods and services.

The philosophy of free markets

The philosophy of the free market is the belief that a free market system — with limited government intervention and regulation — is the best way to improve economic efficiency, maximize consumer choice, and ensure fair competition. This philosophy was first developed by Adam Smith with classical economists David Ricardo, and Jean-Baptiste Say. These thinkers argued that a free market system would lead to greater economic efficiency because it would allow producers to compete freely and offer consumers the best possible products at lower prices.

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They also believed that this system would promote innovation by forcing producers to innovate as an important part of the free market economy, as it leads to higher-quality goods at cheaper prices by finding new and better ways to produce goods. Finally, free market systems are said to be fair because they ensure that all participating players have an equal chance of winning.

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Notable accomplishments

Smith is best known for his work on economic theory, market demand and supply, and political economy. However, he also made important contributions to moral philosophy and jurisprudence. In particular, Smith was the first to develop a system of moral sense theory, which has been highly influential in modern economics.

Adam Smith was an extremely successful economist whose theory of market demand and supply is still used today to analyze economic transactions. Additionally, he was also a gifted writer who made significant contributions to political economy.

The Wealth of Nations

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Adam Smith’s book The Wealth of Nations is one of the most influential works in economics. It was conceived as a two-volume moral philosophy work, co-written with colleague David Hume. However, after publishing The Theory of Moral Sentiments, it quickly became evident that this would not be possible given its length and complexity. As a result, Smith decided to divide the work into two separate books, The Wealth of Nations and A System of Logic. The Wealth of Nations was published in 1776 and is considered one of the most important pieces of economics ever written. Thanks to it, many theories and ideas have come to light, which we will consider below.

The invisible hand theory

The Invisible Hand Theory was first proposed by Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations. It is the idea that markets work in the best interest of all participants and that government intervention always results in more harm than good. Smith argued that private businesses are rational, self-interested entities that naturally work to maximize profits for their owners. This leads to the efficient allocation of resources, which in turn benefits society as a whole.

Critics of the Invisible Hand Theory argue that it is flawed because it does not take into account the role of social institutions such as family or community in shaping economic behavior. Additionally, they argue with the claim that government intervention can have unintended consequences, causing more harm than good. Despite these criticisms, the Invisible Hand Theory remains one of the most widely accepted explanations of how markets work. Most economists today believe that markets function best when they are free and fair, and that government intervention is usually harmful rather than helpful.

Wealth and production of goods

The ideas promoted by The Wealth of Nations generated international attention and debate. Adam Smith’s theory asserted that in a free market, production is efficient and prosperous because the division of labor leads to increased productivity. This, in turn, allows for an increase in overall wealth.

Smith argued that it was not the government’s role to intervene with markets and promote economic growth; rather, it was up to individual capitalists and entrepreneurs to create new products and services that consumers want. In order for producers to make a profit, they must be able to charge higher prices than their competitors without losing too much business. To do this, they need access to land, capital (sources of financing), and skilled laborers.

Smith’s theory of the marketplace has been influential in the development of capitalism and continues to be a source of inspiration for economists, business leaders, and others interested in economic growth.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

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In his book, The Wealth of Nations, Scottish economist and political philosopher argued that the key to economic prosperity was to maximize resource use while ensuring that humans engage in productive activities. He believed that GDP (gross domestic product), a measure of the total value of all goods and services produced in a country over a period, is an accurate indicator of this.

GDP is not just important for measuring economic progress but also as an indicator of social welfare. When it grows faster than population growth rates, it means more resources are available for people’s basic needs, such as healthcare, education, and housing. It also means that society is becoming more prosperous overall.


There can be no doubt that the legacy of Adam Smith will endure as one of the most influential thinkers in economic history. His work in economics laid the groundwork for modern macroeconomics and capitalism, and his insights into human behavior remain highly relevant to understanding individual decision-making and market dynamics.

Smith’s legacy is also evident in the society around him. His ideas on free markets, fair economics, and the benefits of entrepreneurship have helped to shape modern capitalism and foster an entrepreneurial spirit in individuals across the globe. He is truly one of a kind, and his influence will continue to be felt for generations to come.

Honor and awards

Adam Smith was awarded the honorary degree of LLD by the University of Glasgow in 1795. He also received an honorary doctorate from Oxford and a number of other honors, including election as a Fellow of the Royal Society (1783). Smith was knighted by King George III in 1768.

The Adam Smith Prize is a prize awarded annually by the Mercatus Center at George Mason University to “an individual or individuals who have made outstanding contributions to advancing free market principles and prosperity”. The name of the scientist is also named library, research center, and several other objects of The University of Glasgow. In 2007, the Bank of England featured an image of an economist on the £20 note.

Why is Adam Smith called the father of economics?

Adam Smith is a scientist who is called the father of economics because he was one of the earliest thinkers to apply economic reasoning to explain how markets work and to suggest solutions for public policy problems. His main work, The Wealth of Nations (1776), is still a highly influential text on economics. It contains explanations of how markets work and suggests solutions for public policy problems.

Note! Adam Smith is known all over the world, but in different countries there are names that are no less famous. So, Dadabhai Naoroji was called by compatriots the father of modern economics in India.

What books did Adam Smith write?

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In addition to his first work on economics The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith wrote many other books, including The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), and A System of Logic (1807).

Smith is thought to have thought The Theory of Moral Sentiments to be a superior work, despite the fact that The Wealth of Nations is largely regarded as his most influential book. Until his passing, Smith made considerable edits to work.

What were Adam Smith’s 3 laws of economics?

The three economic laws written by Adam Smith are:

  1. The law of self-interest: People act in their own best interests according to the self-interest law.
  2. The law of competition: People are compelled to produce better goods by competition.
  3. The Law of Supply and Demand: In a market economy, sufficient quantities of commodities would be produced at the lowest possible cost to satisfy demand.

The bottom line

Now you know the answer to the question “Who is the father of modern economics and microeconomics?”. Adam Smith is one of the most famous economists in Scotland regarded as the founder of economics. His work established a way of thinking that is widely acknowledged to influence the the path of human history. For instance, it emphasized the difficulties of limiting international trade and urged governments to loosen up on their protectionist measures.

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